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|Test||Description of the Test|
|Alanine Transaminase||Alanine transaminase is an enzyme present in the liver cells. A high level in the blood indicates a damage to the liver cells, which could be due to conditions such as hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver.|
|Aspartate Transaminase / Aspartate Aminotransferase||Aspartate transaminase is an enzyme in the liver. It is also present in other parts like muscle, kidneys, brain, pancreas, lungs, and red and white blood cells, and is released into the blood when the cells are damaged.|
|Alkaline phosphatase||Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme whose level in the blood is increased in conditions where there is an obstruction of flow of bile from the liver. Its levels are also increased in bone disease, pregnancy, chronic kidney disease and congestive heart failure.|
|Gamma glutamyl transferase||Gamma glutamyl transferase is a liver enzyme. Its level in the blood increases following damage to the liver. Its levels are estimated along with other liver function tests to detect liver damage, before surgery, before prescribing liver-damaging drugs, or prior to liver donation. The enzyme is also present in other organs like the kidney, pancreas, intestine, and prostate.|
|Bilirubin total||Bilirubin is a breakdown product of red blood cells. It is conjugated in the liver to form conjugated bilirubin. Thus, there are two forms of bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin. The total bilirubin measures the sum total of the conjugated as well as the unconjugated bilirubin.|
|Bilirubin indirect/ Unconjugated bilirubin||Unconjugated bilirubin is a pigment, which is formed following the breakdown of red blood cells. Its levels in the blood may increase following breakdown of a large number of red blood cells or a problem with the conjugation process by the liver.|
|Bilirubin direct/ Conjugated bilirubin||Bilirubin is a breakdown product of red blood cells. It goes into the liver where it is conjugated and forms conjugated bilirubin. High levels of conjugated bilirubin are noted in certain liver diseases.|
|Total protein||Albumin and globulin are the two main proteins present in the blood. The total protein measures the levels of the total level of these two proteins in the blood.|
|Serum albumin||Albumin is a type of protein that constitutes around 60% of the protein in the blood. It is produced by the liver, and therefore its levels could be affected in liver disease, though other conditions like kidney disease and congestive heart failure could also be responsible.|
|Serum globulin||Serum globulin is a type of protein in the blood, which constitutes around 40% of the total protein. It is present as several subtypes.|
|Serum albumin/globulin ratio||The serum albumin/globulin ratio is a calculated parameter based on the serum albumin and globulin levels. It gives an insight into the possible cause of abnormality in the serum protein values.|
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