General Health Topics

The list below provides some examples of the articles available in the InsHeal Content Repository on general health topics. For further details and sample articles, please reach out to us at:

Allergic Rhinitis – Avoiding the AllergenAvoiding the possible allergen such as dust mites, cockroaches and pollen could reduce the episodes of allergic rhinitis.
Allergic Rhinitis – DiagnosisAllergic rhinitis is diagnosed by understanding patient symptoms, and doing a physical examination and tests such as skin prick test.
Allergy to AntibioticsAllergic reactions to medications, especially antibiotics, are not uncommon. Alternative options are available for those who are allergic to a particular group of antibiotics.
Antibiotic Resistance in India – Time for ActionAntibiotic resistance could result in redundancy of some of the commonly used antibiotics, and create a deficit in the available treatments. Judicious use of antibiotics is the need of the hour.
Chronic insomniaInsomnia is a sleep disorder associated with a difficulty in falling asleep and/or maintaining the sleep for the required duration. While sleep hygiene techniques may help some individuals with insomnia, others may need medications.
Companion diagnostic testsCompanion diagnostic tests detect an abnormality in a gene or a protein responsible for a cancer, and an associated treatment to specifically treat that abnormality is available.
DengueDengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that could follow a mild course or progress to complications such as bleeding and a fall in blood pressure. The prevention of mosquito bites and early detection of the infection can prevent severe disease.
Drugs and Kidney DamageSome medicines can have adverse effects on the kidney, and could even result in kidney failure. These should be avoided in individuals with pre-existing kidney disease.
Dry Eyes – CausesDry eyes may be a consequence of local conditions affecting the eyes or eyelids, generalized disorders, intake of certain medications or environmental conditions.
Dry Eyes – Non-pharmacological TreatmentsSeveral tips such as reducing screen time and taking regular breaks from screens could help to improve dry eyes.
Dry Eyes – Symptoms and Risk FactorsSymptoms related to dry eyes include stinging, a foreign body sensation and intermittent tearing.
Dry Eyes – TestsA careful eye examination with several tests are used to diagnose the probable cause of dry eyes.
Dry Eyes – TreatmentSeveral approaches are used to treat dry eyes such as artificial tears, moisture retaining goggles and the intake of essential fatty acids.
Effect on Reduced Sleep on healthReduced sleep in terms of duration as well as rhythm can affect the physical and mental health. It also increases the risk of accidents.
First Aid for Snake Bite – Dos and Don’tsThe use of a tourniquet or cutting or sucking at a snake bite should not be encouraged. Instead, the limb should be immobilized and the victim should be taken to a hospital as soon as possible.
Hemorrhagic Stroke – Risk FactorsHypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and clotting disorders are some of the factors that could increase the risk of developing a bleed in the brain.
Informed ConsentThe informed consent form is a written document that indicates the willingness of a person to participate in a clinical trial after being informed about the relevant information related to the clinical trial.
Low back pain in AthletesExcess stress on the back can result in low back pain in athletes. Core strengthening exercises can help to avoid the pain from developing.
Low vitamin D Levels – Causes and EffectsInadequate exposure to sunlight and/or inadequate intake of vitamin D through the diet are common causes of vitamin D deficiency. The deficiency primarily affects bone health, though it may also have an impact on immunity.
MenopauseMenopause can be a difficult time for women with hot flushes, sleep disturbances and mood changes. Hormone therapy may be used in select women to alleviate symptoms.
Motion Sickness – Causes and SymptomsMotion sickness refers to a group of symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, sweating, fatigue and lethargy. It arises from travel on land, sea or air and results from conflicts of sensory signals from the inner ears and the eyes to the brain.
Motion Sickness – Drug TherapyMotion sickness can be prevented using drugs such as scopolamine and dimenhydrinate. These may be associated with sedation and other side effects and should therefore be used with caution.
Motion Sickness – Non-drug TreatmentsSeveral methods such as a proper posture and breathing techniques while traveling could reduce the symptoms of motion sickness in select individuals. Over-the-counter medications including herbal preparations should be used only after consulting a physician to prevent side effects.
Neck pain – Risk FactorsNeck pain is due to physical factors affecting the bones and/or the muscles of the neck. It could also be associated with psychological factors such as stress or mental disorders such as bipolar disorder.
Nocturnal muscle crampsNocturnal cramps in the calf muscles are common, especially in the elderly. They may be associated with an underlying illness, though in several cases, the exact cause is not known.
Noise-induced Hearing LossVery loud noises affect the inner ear and lead to hearing loss. Therefore, exposure to loud noises should be minimized when possible.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)NAFLD is a condition characterized by infiltration of fat in the liver followed by inflammation and fibrosis. With no drugs currently approved for its treatment, diet control and regular exercise with the aim of promoting weight loss constitute the mainstay of the treatment of NAFLD.
Nonspecific low back painNonspecific low back pain refers to low back pain without any organic cause. Conditions that increase the risk include sedentary behavior, increased weight and cigarette smoking.
Obstructive Sleep ApneaObstructive sleep apnea is a condition where a person temporarily stops breathing during sleep. Weight loss and special appliances could help to overcome the breathing problems.
Omics technologies in Cancer TherapyOmics technologies, which include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and microbiomics, analyze data related to genes, transcripts, proteins, metabolites and microbial flora, thus contributing to a personalized approach to cancer treatment.
Parkinson’s Disease – SymptomsParkinson’s disease is a condition associated with symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, slowness of movement and problems with balance. Symptoms unrelated to the motor system such as depression and sleep disturbances may be present.
Personal health recordsPersonal health records, especially those related to current illnesses and routine medicines, as well as health insurance details should be available in person as well as with the immediate family or friends. These could be required in case of a medical emergency.
Post-stroke RehabilitationEarly physical and psychological rehabilitation following a stroke can improve functions and therefore make the patient more independent.
Precision / Personalized MedicinePrecision medicine, also referred to as personalized medicine, moves away from the one-size-fits-all to a tailored approach to individualize treatment for complex diseases such as cancer.
Proton Pump InhibitorsProton pump inhibitors are drugs used to treat conditions of the digestive tract that are a consequence of stomach acidity. Though some conditions require the drugs to be used over prolonged periods, guidelines indicate that the drugs should be tapered in those who no longer require them.
Rhinitis – Medication InducedMedications such as painkillers, antihypertensive drugs and intranasal decongestants could be responsible for continuous nasal symptoms.
Skin Prick TestThe skin prick test is a simple test that helps to pinpoint the cause of allergies. The result of the test can therefore help affected individuals to avoid the allergens and reduce the chances of a reaction.
Snake Bite – Symptoms and PreventionSnake bites can be prevented through an adequate knowledge of the local snakes and their habitats, and avoiding them as far as possible.
Stroke – Diagnostic TestsImaging tests of the brain such as CT scan and MRI are used to diagnose a stroke along with a clinical examination and tests to detect the underlying cause of the stroke.
Stroke – Risk factorsThe risk factors for stroke include hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation and smoking.
Stroke – Warning SignsAn early recognition of the signs of a stroke by bystanders could contribute to early treatment, thereby reducing the permanent disability caused by the stroke.
Syncope and PresyncopeSyncope refers to a transient loss of consciousness over a short duration that is associated with a spontaneous complete recovery. Presyncope refers to the symptoms that the patient sometimes experiences before a syncopal attack.
Traumatic Bleeding – First AidSerious bleeding due to trauma should be stopped as soon as possible. Direct pressure on wounds on the torso or tourniquets, when available, the serious bleeds on the limbs can be used to stop the blood loss.
TinnitusTinnitus is a symptom where a sound appears to be generated by the body, rather than by outside source. It could be due to simple conditions such as excessive wax in the ear to more serious conditions. In some cases, the cause is not known, and the patient can be taught to cope with the condition
Tumor boardA tumor board is a group of cancer specialists that meet either physically or virtually to discuss the treatment of a cancer based on its molecular profile.

Aging – Related Topics

Aging and NutritionThe elderly could suffer from malnutrition due to physiological changes such as difficulty with chewing, psychological conditions such as depression and social factors such as loneliness.
Aging and the Digestive TractThe elderly often suffer from poor oral health, due to which the chewing and swallowing of food can get affected. Loss of appetite and a possible reduction in some digestive enzymes could also affect their nutritional status.
Deterioration of functions with ageOlder age is associated with a reduction in bone and muscle, cardiovascular and cognitive functions.
Dietary recommendations for the ElderlyThe elderly are recommended a nutritious diet that is rich in protein, easy to chew, and tasty. The fluid intake should be adequate.
Falls in the Elderly – PreventionFalls in the elderly can be prevented through balance and strengthening exercises, reducing the possible hazards in the house and treatment of conditions that could predispose to the falls.
Falls in the Elderly – Risk FactorsFactors that increase the risk for falls in the elderly include muscle weakness, the intake of certain medications and problems with balance or the feet.
Falls in the Elderly – TestsTests for balance, muscle strength, bone density and tests to diagnose predisposing conditions can help to identify preventable causes of falls and prevent disability in the elderly.
Low Sodium Levels in the ElderlySeveral reasons could contribute to low sodium levels in the elderly. These include underlying illnesses, the intake of multiple medications and a low sodium or low protein diet.
Physical activity to promote healthy agingAdequate physical activity during one’s lifetime can promote healthy aging.

Heart – Related Topics

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)CPR delivered early and in the right way can save the lives of people suffering from a cardiac arrest.
Chest Pain – CausesCauses of chest pain include cardiac causes such as angina, heart attack and valvular disease, and non-cardiac causes such as diseases affecting the lungs, esophagus and rib joints.
Chest Pain – Recommended TestsTests that are often recommended for people with chest pain include ECG, chest x-ray, cardiac troponin levels and echocardiography.
Chest Pain – Symptoms associated with Angina or Heart AttackChest pain that is associated with angina or a heart attack is usually a diffuse, left sided pain or a feeling of pressure, squeezing, gripping, heaviness or tightness in the chest that may radiate to the shoulders, arms, neck, back, upper abdomen or jaw. It may increase with physical or emotional stress and is relieved using nitroglycerin.
COVID-19 and the HeartSome patients with COVID-19 suffer from complications related to the heart. These may include heart attacks, abnormal heart rhythms and inflammation of the heart.
Myocardial infarction – TypesMyocardial infarction or heart attack refers to damage to the heart muscle due to reduced oxygen supply. The most common types are type 1 and type 2.
Risk Factors for Cardiovascular DiseaseAn older age and the male sex, presence of disorders such as diabetes and hypertension and lifestyle factors such as physical inactivity and an unhealthy diet could increase the risk of heart disease.
Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 DiabetesPeople with long-standing diabetes or with diabetes complications are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. A healthy diet, a regular exercise program and treatment with medications could reduce the risk cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Sudden Cardiac Arrest – CausesThe causes of sudden cardiac arrest include coronary artery disease, congenital heart disorders, use of anabolic steroids, stress and trauma to the chest.
Sudden Cardiac Arrest in AthletesA sudden cardiac arrest in athletes is often due to a coronary artery disease in adults over the age of 35 years. In younger individuals, a heart abnormality present since birth is often responsible.
Sudden Cardiac Arrest – ManagementTreatment of sudden cardiac arrest should preferably begin before the patient is transferred to the hospital to improve the outcome of the patient.
Palpitations – Cardiac CausesPalpitations are due to abnormal heart rhythms. Individuals with an underlying heart disorder or a family history of a sudden early death due to a heart problem should sort immediate medical assistance for the palpitations.
Palpitations – Diagnostic TestsTests for palpitations are directed towards identifying the cause of the palpitations. They include tests such as ECG or Holter monitoring which check the working of the heart, as well as blood tests to detect abnormalities such as thyroid dysfunction that may affect the regular beating of the heart.
Palpitations – Non-cardiac causesIn addition to cardiac causes, palpitations may result from non-cardiac causes such as anxiety and high thyroid hormone levels. These should be ruled out in a patient complaining of palpitations.

Diabetes – Related Topics

Diabetes – TypesDiabetes is often of type 1 or type 2. Gestational diabetes is diabetes that is first diagnosed during pregnancy.
Gestational diabetes mellitusGestational diabetes is diabetes that is first diagnosed during pregnancy. It increases the risk of developing diabetes in the future.
PrediabetesIndividuals with prediabetes have blood glucose parameters that are higher than normal but do not qualify for diabetes. These individuals are at a high risk for developing diabetes.
Remission of type 2 diabetesSome people with type 2 diabetes may be able to come off their diabetes medications following interventions such as bariatric surgery or lifestyle modifications. They should however continue to routinely monitor their blood glucose control and check for diabetes complications.
The HbA1c versus the Fasting Plasma Glucose Test for Type 2 diabetesThe HbA1c percentage reflects the level of glucose levels in the blood over the previous three months whereas the fasting plasma glucose measures the glucose level at the time of the measurement.
Type 1 diabetes – SymptomsType 1 diabetes may present with increased urination and thirst. Some may present for the first time with the more serious diabetes ketoacidosis.
Type 2 diabetes – Important FactsType 2 diabetes often goes undiagnosed for several years. Factors associated with an increased risk include an older age, obesity, lack of physical activity and presence of hypertension.

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